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− | the | + | == Welcome to Gaskination's StatWiki! == |

+ | ''''' Supported by the Doctor of Management Program at Case Western Reserve University and by Brigham Young University''''' | ||

+ | |||

+ | This wiki has been created to provide you with all sorts of statistics tutorials to guide you through the standard statistical analyses common to hypothesis testing in the social sciences. Examples are geared toward organizational, business, and management fields. AMOS, SPSS, Excel, SmartPLS and PLS-graph are used to perform all analyses provided on this wiki. This wiki is not exhaustive, or even very comprehensive. I provide ''brief'' explanations of concepts, rather than full length instruction. My main focus is on providing guidance on ''how to perform'' the statistics. This is very much a mechanically oriented resource. For more comprehensive instruction on the methods demonstrated in this wiki, please refer to Hair et al 2010 (''Multivariate Data Analysis''), as well as to the powerpoint presentations offered for most of the topics. I hope you find the resources here useful. I will likely update them from time to time. | ||

+ | |||

+ | This teaching material has been developed as part of a quantitative social science method sequence aimed to prepare [http://weatherhead.case.edu/degrees/doctor-management Doctor of Management] students for their quantitative research project. These students are working executives who carry out a rigorous quantitative project as part of their research stream. Examples of these projects and examples of how to report results of quantitative research projects in academic papers can be found at in the [http://weatherhead.case.edu/degrees/doctor-management/dm-research DM Research Library]. | ||

+ | |||

+ | '''Acknowledgments''' | ||

+ | |||

+ | The materials and teaching approach adopted in these materials have been developed by a team of teachers consisting of Jagdip Singh, Toni Somers, Kalle Lyytinen, Nick Berente, Shyam Giridharadas and me over the last several years. Although I have developed and refined much of the material and the resources in this Wiki, I am not the sole contributor. I greatly appreciate the work done by Kalle Lyytinen (Case Western Reserve University) , Toni Somers (Wayne State University), Nick Berente (University of Georgia), Shyam Giridharadas (University of Washington) and Jagdip Singh (Case Western Reserve University) who selected and identified much of the literature underlying the materials and also originally developed many of the Powerpoint slides. They also helped me refine these materials by providing useful feedback on the slides and videos. I also appreciate the contribution and help of Jagdip Singh (Case Western Reserve University), who is the owner of the Sohana and Bencare datasets used in the examples and which are made available below. I also acknowledge the continued support of the [http://weatherhead.case.edu/degrees/doctor-management Doctor of Management Program] at the [http://weatherhead.case.edu Weatherhead School of Management] at [http://www.case.edu Case Western Reserve University], Cleveland, Ohio for their involvement, support, and sponsoring of this wiki, as well as to Brigham Young University for encouraging me in all my SEM-related endeavors. | ||

+ | |||

+ | ''Please report any problems with the wiki to james.eric.gaskin@gmail.com'' [mailto:james.eric.gaskin@gmail.com] | ||

+ | *If you are having trouble and cannot figure out what to do, even after using the resources on this wiki or on Gaskination, then you might benefit from the archive of support emails I have received and responded to over the past years: [http://www.kolobkreations.com/StatsHelpArchive.pdf Stats Help Archive]. | ||

+ | *[[File:Excelicon.jpg]]You may find this set of Excel tools useful/necessary for many of the analyses you will learn about in this wiki: [http://www.kolobkreations.com/Stats%20Tools%20Package.xlsm '''''Stats Tools Package'''''] Please note that this one is the most recently updated one, and does not include a variance column in the Validity Master sheet. This is because it was a mistake to include variances when working with standardized estimates. | ||

+ | *You may also find this basics tutorial for AMOS and SPSS useful as a starter. | ||

+ | *[[File:YouTube.png]]'''''VIDEO TUTORIAL:''''' [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=efC81f-Z22Q '''Basic Analysis in AMOS and SPSS'''] | ||

+ | |||

+ | '''Datasets''' | ||

+ | |||

+ | Here are some links to the datasets, and related resources, I use in many of the video tutorials. | ||

+ | *[http://www.kolobkreations.com/YouTube%20SEM%20Series.sav YouTube SEM Series] (this data goes along with this YouTube playlist: [https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLnMJlbz3sefJaVv8rBL2_G85HoUko5I-- '''SEM Series 2016''']) | ||

+ | *[http://www.kolobkreations.com/Sohana.zip Sohana] | ||

+ | *[http://www.kolobkreations.com/Bencare.zip Bencare] | ||

+ | *[http://www.kolobkreations.com/SalesPerformance.sav Sales Performance] | ||

+ | |||

+ | ===How to cite Gaskination resources=== | ||

+ | ''[http://www.kolobkreations.com/PLSIEEETPC2014.pdf IEEE TPC PLS article]'': | ||

+ | *Paul Benjamin Lowry & James Gaskin (2014). “Partial Least Squares (PLS) Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) for Building and Testing Behavioral Causal Theory: When to Choose It and How to Use It,” IEEE TPC (57:2), pp. 123-146. | ||

+ | |||

+ | ''Wiki'': | ||

+ | *Gaskin, J., (2016), "Name of section", Gaskination's StatWiki. http://statwiki.kolobkreations.com | ||

+ | |||

+ | ''YouTube videos'': | ||

+ | *Gaskin, J., (Year video uploaded), "Name of video", Gaskination's Statistics. http://youtube.com/Gaskination | ||

+ | |||

+ | ''Stats Tools Package'': | ||

+ | *Gaskin, J., (2016), "Name of tab", Stats Tools Package. http://statwiki.kolobkreations.com | ||

+ | |||

+ | ''Plugin or Estimand'': | ||

+ | *Gaskin, J., (2016), "Name of Plugin or Estimand", Gaskination's Statistics. http://statwiki.kolobkreations.com | ||

+ | |||

+ | == StatWiki Contents == | ||

+ | 1. [[Data screening]] | ||

+ | |||

+ | *[[Data screening#Missing Data|Missing Data]] | ||

+ | *[[Data screening#Outliers|Outliers]] | ||

+ | *[[Data screening#Normality|Normality]] | ||

+ | *[[Data screening#Linearity|Linearity]] | ||

+ | *[[Data screening#Homoscedasticity|Homoscedasticity]] | ||

+ | *[[Data screening#Multicollinearity|Multicollinearity]] | ||

+ | |||

+ | 2. [[Exploratory Factor Analysis]] (EFA) | ||

+ | |||

+ | *[[Exploratory Factor Analysis#Rotation types|Rotation types]] | ||

+ | *[[Exploratory Factor Analysis#Factoring methods|Factoring methods]] | ||

+ | *[[Exploratory Factor Analysis#Appropriateness of data|Appropriateness of data]] | ||

+ | *[[Exploratory Factor Analysis#Communalities|Communalities]] | ||

+ | *[[Exploratory Factor Analysis#Dimensionality|Dimensionality]] | ||

+ | *[[Exploratory Factor Analysis#Factor Structure|Factor Structure]] | ||

+ | *[[Exploratory Factor Analysis#Convergent validity|Convergent validity]] | ||

+ | *[[Exploratory Factor Analysis#Discriminant validity|Discriminant validity]] | ||

+ | *[[Exploratory Factor Analysis#Face validity|Face validity]] | ||

+ | *[[Exploratory Factor Analysis#Reliability|Reliability]] | ||

+ | *[[Exploratory Factor Analysis#Formative vs. Reflective|Formative vs. Reflective]] | ||

+ | |||

+ | 3. [[Confirmatory Factor Analysis]] (CFA) | ||

+ | |||

+ | *[[Confirmatory Factor Analysis#Model Fit|Model Fit]] | ||

+ | *[[Confirmatory Factor Analysis#Validity and Reliability|Validity and Reliability]] | ||

+ | *[[Confirmatory Factor Analysis#Common Method Bias (CMB)|Common Method Bias (CMB)]] | ||

+ | *[[Confirmatory Factor Analysis#Measurement_Model_Invariance|Invariance]] | ||

+ | *[[Confirmatory Factor Analysis#2nd Order Factors|2nd Order Factors]] | ||

+ | |||

+ | 4. [[Structural Equation Modeling]] (SEM) | ||

+ | |||

+ | *[[Structural Equation Modeling#Hypotheses|Hypotheses]] | ||

+ | *[[Structural Equation Modeling#Controls|Controls]] | ||

+ | *[[Structural Equation Modeling#Mediation|Mediation]] | ||

+ | *[[Structural Equation Modeling#Interaction|Interaction]] | ||

+ | *[[Structural Equation Modeling#Model fit again|Model fit again]] | ||

+ | *[[Structural Equation Modeling#Multi-group|Multi-group]] | ||

+ | *[[Structural Equation Modeling#From Measurement Model to Structural Model|From Measurement Model to Structural Model]] | ||

+ | *[[Structural Equation Modeling#Creating Composites from Latent Factors|Creating Composites from Latent Factors]] | ||

+ | |||

+ | 5. [[PLS]] (Partial Least Squares) | ||

+ | *[[PLS#Installing PLS-graph|Installing PLS-graph]] | ||

+ | *[[PLS#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]] | ||

+ | *[[PLS#Sample Size Rule|Sample Size Rule]] | ||

+ | *[[PLS#Factor Analysis|Factor Analysis]] | ||

+ | *[[PLS#Testing Causal Models|Testing Causal Models]] | ||

+ | *[[PLS#Testing Group Differences|Testing Group Differences]] | ||

+ | *[[PLS#Handling Missing Data|Handling Missing Data]] | ||

+ | *[[PLS#Convergent and Discriminant Validity|Convergent and Discriminant Validity]] | ||

+ | *[[PLS#Common Method Bias|Common Method Bias]] | ||

+ | *[[PLS#Interaction|Interaction]] | ||

+ | *[[PLS#SmartPLS|SmartPLS]] | ||

+ | |||

+ | 6. [[Guidelines|General Guidelines]] | ||

+ | |||

+ | *[[Guidelines#Example Analysis|Example Analysis]] | ||

+ | *[[Guidelines#Ten Steps|Ten Steps to Building a Good Quant Model]] | ||

+ | *[[Guidelines#Order of Operations|Order of Operations]] | ||

+ | *[[Guidelines#Structuring a Quantitative Paper|General Guidelines to Writing a Quant Paper]] | ||

+ | |||

+ | 7. [[Cluster Analysis|Cluster Analysis]] | ||

+ | *Just a bunch of videos here |

## Revision as of 13:02, 19 June 2017

## Welcome to Gaskination's StatWiki!

** Supported by the Doctor of Management Program at Case Western Reserve University and by Brigham Young University**

This wiki has been created to provide you with all sorts of statistics tutorials to guide you through the standard statistical analyses common to hypothesis testing in the social sciences. Examples are geared toward organizational, business, and management fields. AMOS, SPSS, Excel, SmartPLS and PLS-graph are used to perform all analyses provided on this wiki. This wiki is not exhaustive, or even very comprehensive. I provide *brief* explanations of concepts, rather than full length instruction. My main focus is on providing guidance on *how to perform* the statistics. This is very much a mechanically oriented resource. For more comprehensive instruction on the methods demonstrated in this wiki, please refer to Hair et al 2010 (*Multivariate Data Analysis*), as well as to the powerpoint presentations offered for most of the topics. I hope you find the resources here useful. I will likely update them from time to time.

This teaching material has been developed as part of a quantitative social science method sequence aimed to prepare Doctor of Management students for their quantitative research project. These students are working executives who carry out a rigorous quantitative project as part of their research stream. Examples of these projects and examples of how to report results of quantitative research projects in academic papers can be found at in the DM Research Library.

**Acknowledgments**

The materials and teaching approach adopted in these materials have been developed by a team of teachers consisting of Jagdip Singh, Toni Somers, Kalle Lyytinen, Nick Berente, Shyam Giridharadas and me over the last several years. Although I have developed and refined much of the material and the resources in this Wiki, I am not the sole contributor. I greatly appreciate the work done by Kalle Lyytinen (Case Western Reserve University) , Toni Somers (Wayne State University), Nick Berente (University of Georgia), Shyam Giridharadas (University of Washington) and Jagdip Singh (Case Western Reserve University) who selected and identified much of the literature underlying the materials and also originally developed many of the Powerpoint slides. They also helped me refine these materials by providing useful feedback on the slides and videos. I also appreciate the contribution and help of Jagdip Singh (Case Western Reserve University), who is the owner of the Sohana and Bencare datasets used in the examples and which are made available below. I also acknowledge the continued support of the Doctor of Management Program at the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio for their involvement, support, and sponsoring of this wiki, as well as to Brigham Young University for encouraging me in all my SEM-related endeavors.

*Please report any problems with the wiki to james.eric.gaskin@gmail.com* [1]

- If you are having trouble and cannot figure out what to do, even after using the resources on this wiki or on Gaskination, then you might benefit from the archive of support emails I have received and responded to over the past years: Stats Help Archive.
- You may find this set of Excel tools useful/necessary for many of the analyses you will learn about in this wiki:
Please note that this one is the most recently updated one, and does not include a variance column in the Validity Master sheet. This is because it was a mistake to include variances when working with standardized estimates.**Stats Tools Package** - You may also find this basics tutorial for AMOS and SPSS useful as a starter.
**VIDEO TUTORIAL:****Basic Analysis in AMOS and SPSS**

**Datasets**

Here are some links to the datasets, and related resources, I use in many of the video tutorials.

- YouTube SEM Series (this data goes along with this YouTube playlist:
**SEM Series 2016**) - Sohana
- Bencare
- Sales Performance

### How to cite Gaskination resources

- Paul Benjamin Lowry & James Gaskin (2014). “Partial Least Squares (PLS) Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) for Building and Testing Behavioral Causal Theory: When to Choose It and How to Use It,” IEEE TPC (57:2), pp. 123-146.

*Wiki*:

- Gaskin, J., (2016), "Name of section", Gaskination's StatWiki. http://statwiki.kolobkreations.com

*YouTube videos*:

- Gaskin, J., (Year video uploaded), "Name of video", Gaskination's Statistics. http://youtube.com/Gaskination

*Stats Tools Package*:

- Gaskin, J., (2016), "Name of tab", Stats Tools Package. http://statwiki.kolobkreations.com

*Plugin or Estimand*:

- Gaskin, J., (2016), "Name of Plugin or Estimand", Gaskination's Statistics. http://statwiki.kolobkreations.com

## StatWiki Contents

2. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA)

- Rotation types
- Factoring methods
- Appropriateness of data
- Communalities
- Dimensionality
- Factor Structure
- Convergent validity
- Discriminant validity
- Face validity
- Reliability
- Formative vs. Reflective

3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)

4. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)

- Hypotheses
- Controls
- Mediation
- Interaction
- Model fit again
- Multi-group
- From Measurement Model to Structural Model
- Creating Composites from Latent Factors

5. PLS (Partial Least Squares)

- Installing PLS-graph
- Troubleshooting
- Sample Size Rule
- Factor Analysis
- Testing Causal Models
- Testing Group Differences
- Handling Missing Data
- Convergent and Discriminant Validity
- Common Method Bias
- Interaction
- SmartPLS

- Example Analysis
- Ten Steps to Building a Good Quant Model
- Order of Operations
- General Guidelines to Writing a Quant Paper

- Just a bunch of videos here